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Theories of development
All Rights Reserved. These phases are prenatal life, infancy , childhood , adolescence , and adulthood including old age. Human development , or developmental psychology, is a field of study that attempts to describe and explain the changes in human cognitive , emotional, and behavioral capabilities and functioning over the entire life span , from the fetus to old age.
Most scientific research on human development has concentrated on the period from birth through early adolescence, owing to both the rapidity and magnitude of the psychological changes observed during those phases and to the fact that they culminate in the optimum mental functioning of early adulthood. A primary motivation of many investigators in the field has been to determine how the culminating mental abilities of adulthood were reached during the preceding phases. This essay will concentrate, therefore, on human development during the first 12 years of life.
This article discusses the development of human behaviour.
Emotional memory across the adult lifespan / Elizabeth A. Kensinger.
For treatment of biological development, see human development. For further treatment of particular facets of behavioral development, see emotion ; learning theory ; motivation ; perception ; personality ; and sexual behaviour, human. Various disorders with significant behavioral manifestations are discussed in mental disorder. The systematic study of children is less than years old, and the vast majority of its research has been published since the mids. Basic philosophical differences over the fundamental nature of children and their growth occupied psychologists during much of the 20th century.
Most researchers came to recognize, however, that it is the interaction of inborn biological factors with external factors, rather than the mutually exclusive action or predominance of one or the other force, that guides and influences human development.
Emotional Memory Across the Adult Lifespan: 1st Edition (Hardback) - Routledge
The advances in cognition , emotion , and behaviour that normally occur at certain points in the life span require both maturation i. Generally, maturation by itself cannot cause a psychological function to emerge; it does, however, permit such a function to occur and sets limits on its earliest time of appearance. Three prominent theories of human development emerged in the 20th century, each addressing different aspects of psychological growth. In retrospect, these and other theories seem to have been neither logically rigorous nor able to account for both intellectual and emotional growth within the same framework.
Research in the field has thus tended to be descriptive, since developmental psychology lacks a tight net of interlocking theoretical propositions that reliably permit satisfying explanations. Early psychoanalytic theories of human behaviour were set forth most notably by Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud.
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During the first postnatal year, libido is initially focused on the mouth and its activities; nursing enables the infant to derive gratification through a pleasurable reduction of tension in the oral region. Freud called this the oral stage of development.
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During the second year, the source of excitation is said to shift to the anal area, and the start of toilet training leads the child to invest libido in the anal functions. Freud called this period of development the anal stage. The half dozen years before puberty are called the latency stage.
During the final and so-called genital stage of development, mature gratification is sought in a heterosexual love relationship with another. Freud believed that adult emotional problems result from either deprivation or excessive gratification during the oral, anal, or phallic stages. A child with libido fixated at one of these stages would in adulthood show specific neurotic symptoms, such as anxiety.
Freud devised an influential theory of personality structure.