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Sexual identity and orientation is not the essence of these two spirits.. A two spirit according to me would view his gay brother as just that a gay human limited to the mortal world of objectification…non magical and quite blind to the cosmic intercourse of the mystical reality…. I was moved by this article.

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Thank-you for publishing it. I will pass it on. I find myself ashamed to say that I am a Christian. I have recently changed to a monotheistic Christo-pagan. There is much more acceptance of all people, within this group.

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Unfamiliar to most so affected by Christian colonizers who fought indigenous populations with the flag, guns and the Bible. Traditionally two-spirited people were born that way. They could be male or female and they were considered sacred by their families and their communities. There are two-spirited animals and plants in nature, so it is not wrong to be a two-spirited one in our world. Like the bees, two-spirited ones are a necessity to life.

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For example, seed plants produce fruit after bees pollinate them by transporting pollen from male to female flower parts. The sole purpose of drone bees is to mate with the queen, and her sole purpose is to produce eggs. Like the bee, two-spirited ones cannot take a partner or have children. They are special because they follow three sets of laws: male, female and spiritual ones. They are gifted people who are extremely intelligent and generally become pillars of the community.

We do not have a right to judge or ridicule them. But, they have to be born that way, not because of sexual trauma, or promiscuity. As adults, some of them can carry a sacred pipe and rattle, they can become healers and medicine men or women, they can hold shaking tent lodges, and they can become teachers and protectors of the young men and women. They cannot hold certain ceremonies that require grandchildren such as the thirst dance sun dance and rain dance and horse dance.


However, they are granted the same respect as a grandparent because of their wisdom and guidance. By law, they are not allowed to dress like the opposite gender and they are not allowed to turn anyone into a two-spirited one. If they become two-spirited as a result of sexual trauma they should attend a ceremony dealing with the event. During this ceremony, the healer will be assisted by two-spirited men or women so that person can leave the two-spirited world behind and go back to the way they were at birth. Two-spirited males and females did not come out of the closet as there was no secret about their sexuality.

The term transgender is not a traditional one. First of all, it is the role of the parents and extended family members to socialize the child. A child should not be left with the task of thinking for themselves and making important decisions. If this happens the child may become confused by its environment. Ultimately, during this confusion, they think they own their body and they have the right to do what they want with it.

Most transgenders, transsexuals, transvestites, and intersexed are happy with the role they play in society. However, they do not fit into the circle of life and they are not part of a natural law or the teachings of this land. Although their role is different than that found in an Aboriginal way of life we do not have a right to judge them.

Traditional leaders and ceremonialists have always told our youth and adults that their body belongs to Creator and it is only on loan to them. Therefore, they cannot take their life through suicide, or make physical changes to a body that is on loan to them. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Courtesy of www. Zachary Pullin.

The Native American Oral Tradition by Lois J. Einhorn - Praeger - ABC-CLIO

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    Ginger Mills. Bernadette Weber. Shane Peterson. Kitty Walton. Mary R Martin. Nancy Roof. Prev Next. Credits Staff and Advisors. A Long Convalescence Judith Skillman. Two Poems Sarah Brown Weitzman. Three Poems Lois Marie Harrod. Two Poems Sharon Hilberer. Three Poems Marnie Heenan. Because American Indians existed without written language for many generations, their culture was strongly dependent on an oral tradition for continuity and preservation.

    Not surprisingly, they spent many hours perfecting the art of oral communication and learning methods for committing their messages to memory. Einhorn thoroughly examines the important aspects of this unique oral tradition from a rhetorical perspective, covering individual speakers, nations, and time periods. In the first half of the book, the author examines how the Native American oral tradition has affected their cultural assumptions, principles, values, beliefs, and experiences.

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